Bears kicker Cody Parkey missed a field goal with five seconds left as the Eagles held on for a 16-15 Wild Card win in Chicago.
Nick Foles threw the go-ahead touchdown to Golden Tate with 56 seconds left in the game.
Foles finished with 266 yards, two touchdowns and two interceptions as the Eagles move on to face the Saints in the Divisional Round.
Mitchell Trubisky finished with 303 yards and a touchdown in defeat for the Bears.
Allen Robinson caught 10 passes for 143 yards and a score as Chicago's season comes to an end.